Productive Maintenance is a surprisingly effective approach
to achieving World Class levels of Manufacturing performance.
It has delivered spectacular results in every major
industry and is seen by many manufacturers as a cornerstone
of their improvement strategy.
we will describe some of the key features of this
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is a "Corporate Cultural Change Programme", originally
developed in Japan by the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance.
It is an approach to radically changing the culture
and performance of manufacturing operations through
the application of structured toolkits - called "pillars".
provides comprehensive techniques for changing the behaviour
of personnel in order to improve the design, condition
and performance of plant items.
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aims to achieve the 4 Zeros :
short, TPM aims to remove all sources
of non-value added.
it may seem impossible that the Four Zeros can be achieved
permanently, many organisations have actually come very
close through the application of TPM. What is absolutely
certain is that implementing TPM will result in significant
improvement in all of these areas, even if you do not
achieve all Four of the Zeros.
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consists of a number of discrete toolkits, called the
"Pillars of TPM"
rigorous process of continuous improvement based on
the scientific method of understanding a system, measuring
performance, preparing a hypothesis and investigating
the hypothesis, developing a solution and verifying
the effectiveness of the solution. The Focused Improvement
process is driven by a Loss & Waste system based on
Overall Equipment Effectiveness
(OEE).This pillar provides the main tools for
driving toward Zero Wastes, Zero Breakdowns, Zero
Defects and Zero Accidents
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seven step process to create Self Directed Work Teams
(SDWT) by changing the approach to equipment care.
Particularly effective at improving the underlying
trend of equipment reliability, or where the availability
of good quality maintenance personnel is limited.
Concentration on good equipment conditions, cleanliness
and lubrication during the early steps leads to high
level of ownership of plant items amongst operating
teams. This pillar is a necessary requirement for
Zero breakdowns, and has an indirect effect in achieving
Zero Waste, Zero Defects and Zero Accidents.
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step-by-step process for improving plant maintenance.
Effective plant maintenance requires a mix of approaches
to maintaining plant items - including breakdown,
time based and inspection based maintenance, condition
monitoring and corrective maintenance. However, manufacturing
operations frequently utilise only one or two of these
approaches, leading to high maintenance costs and
low equipment availability. The Effective Maintenance
pillar redresses this by achieving the appropriate
balance of maintenance approaches to deliver optimum
availability at lowest cost. This pillar is also a
necessary requirement for Zero breakdowns, and has
an indirect effect in achieving Zero Waste, Zero Defects
and Zero Accidents.
in the other pillars frequently identifies knowledge
gaps amongst the workforce and management. For example,
operators often do not understand the operating principles
of their equipment, maintenance personnel may be unfamiliar
with maintenance techniques such as "syringe lubrication"
or condition monitoring approaches. Managers can be
unclear of the exact plant performance required, or
may need training in coaching techniques. All of these
knowledge gaps must be filled if significant improvement
is to be achieved. This pillar captures these knowledge
gaps as they are identified, develops appropriate
solutions for training and education (usually resourced
and conducted in-house), and ensures they are delivered
through a programme of structured development for
the entire workforce.
(or "Early Equipment Management", or "Initial Flow
the first four pillars of TPM have been established,
it is usual to find that significant improvements
have been made to existing plant to make them more
effective, more reliable and easier to maintain. The
knowledge which has been developed to achieve these
improvements is now directed toward the development,
design and implementation of new plant items before
they arrive in the factory. It is akin to a process
of Simultaneous Engineering, but involves mining the
deep, practical, knowledge and understanding of what
makes for good production developed during the earlier
pillars, rather than purely theoretical engineering
knowledge. In this way, new plant and equipment should
be capable of vertical startup, where they
achieve their planned performance level immediately,
rather than after a period of commissioning and bedding
Quality Maintenance pillar aims to achieve a production
system which is incapable of producing quality
defects. It builds on the work done during the first
four pillars, and brings in additional techniques
such as Poke Yoke. This pillar is the final step in
the drive toward Zero Defects.
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the other pillars deliver a constantly improving performance
in the equipment, more and more of the problems which
occur will be as a result of the administration of
the operation. This could be in the planning process,
resourcing, documentation or procedures, etc. This
pillar takes the approaches used on the manufacturing
processes and applies them to the administration processes.
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Health & the Environment
pillar ensures that all the improvements developed
by the other pillars do not reduce the Safety, Health
or Environmental performance of the organisation.
It also ensures that the approaches used to achieve
manufacturing performance improvement are equally
applied to Safety, Health and Environmental issues.
The TPM Pillars supply toolkits which have been proven
to deliver improvement. However, Management must ensure
that these toolkits are applied correctly, and where
it is most appropriate to do so. To use an analogy,
Management must ensure the organisation does not try
and undo a screw using a spanner.
To achieve this requires three levels of activity from
Management must agree and communicate the strategic
priorities for the operation. Whilst it is important
to achieve all four of the Zeros, in a business environment
there are frequently medium and short term issues
which will define the order in which they are achieved.
A Balanced Scorecard type approach, combined with
a suitable Loss & Waste system based on Overall
Equipment Effectiveness will usually be sufficient.
a Structure to Manage and Control TPM
Having identified and communicated the strategic priorities,
Management must now ensure that all activities are
geared towards them. This is done by creating a series
of Pillar groups who control the detailed activities
required to implement each pillar and an Overall Steering
Group which co-ordinates the activities between pillars
Individuals, Support Activities, Communicate Progress
These are core management skills and essential for
the success of any change programme. In particular,
Management must be seen to be leading by example if
any behavioural change is to be seen in others.
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